Volume : 3, Issue : 3, AUG 2019


Somya Sah, Priyanka, Chitra Gupta


Amongst the diverse routes of drug delivery, oral route is the most desirable to patient and clinician. Peroral administration of drugs has various disadvantages such as first pass metabolism and enzymatic degradation within the GI tract, that prohibit oral administration of certain classes of drugs especially peptides and proteins. Consequently, other absorptive mucosa are considered as potential sites for drug administration. Transmucosal routes of drug delivery offer distinct advantages over peroral administration for systemic drug delivery.


Buccal drug delivery, Oral mucosa, Mucoadhesion, Bioadhesive, Mucoadhesive.

Article : Download PDF

Cite This Article

Article No : 4

Number of Downloads : 3


  1. Gu JM, Robinson JR, Leung SH. Binding of acrylic polymers to mucin/ epithelial structure-property relationship. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 1998; 5:21-67.
  2. Ganesh NS, Ambale SM, Ramesh B, Deshpande KB. An Overview On Limita­tions Of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System International Journal of Pharma­ceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2011; 8(2):0-23.


  1. De Vries ME, Bodde HE, Verhoef JC, Junginger HE. Developments in buccal drug delivery. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst. 1991; 8:271–303.
  2. Shojaei AH. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 1998;1:15–30.
  3. Davis SS, Daly PB, Kennerley J W , Frier M, Hardy J G ,Wilson CG. Design and evaluation of sustained release formulations for oral and buccal administration. In:Bussmann W D , Dries RR, Wagner W, editors. Controlled release nitro glycerin in buccal and oral form. Advances in pharmacotherapy, 1.Basle:Karger;1982.p. 17–25.
  4. Owens TS, Dansereau RJ, Sakr A. Development and evaluation of extended release bioadhesive sodium fluoride tablets. Int J Pharm 2005; 288:109–22.
  5. Ishida M, Nambu N, Nagai T .Highly viscous gel ointment containing carbopol for application to the oralmucosa. Chem Pharm Bull 1983;31:4561–4.
  6. Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, Katus HA, Krum H, Mohacsi P, etal. Effect of Carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1651–8.
  7. Anders R, Merkle HP. Evaluation of laminated mucoadhesive patches for buccal drug delivery. Int JPharm 1989;49:231–40.
  8. Guo JH. Investigating the surface properties and bioadhesion of buccal patches. J PharmPharmacol 1994;46:647–50.
  9. Patel VM, Prajapati BG, Patel MM. Effect of hydrophilic polymers on buccoadhesive Eudragit patches of propranolol hydrochloride using factorial design. AAPS Pharm SciTech 2007;8. Article45.
  10. Bindu MB, Zulkar NK. Mohammed, Ravinder NA, David Banji. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Tech­nology & Research. 2010;1(4):381. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0110-5558.76436;PMid:22247877 PMCid:PMC3255397.
  11. Peppas NA, Buri PA. Surface, interfacial and macromolecular aspects of polymer bioadhesion on soft tissue. J control Release 1985; 2:257-75.
  12. Chen JL, Cyr GN. Compositions producing adhesion through hydration. In: Manly RS, editor. Adhesion in biological systems. London: Academic Press; 1970. p. 63-181.
  13. Amir H Shojaei. Buccal Mucosa As A Route For Systemic Drug Delivery: A Re­view. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 1998;1(1):15-30,
  14. Shinkar DM, Dhake AS, Setty CM. Drug delivery from the oral cavity: a fo­cus on mucoadhesive Buccal drug delivery systems. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. 2012;66(5):466-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.5731/pdajpst.2012.00877; PMid:23035030.
  15. Surender V, Mahima K, Aruna R, Sapna S. An Overview on Buccal Drug Deliv­ery System. IJPSR. 2011;2(6):1303-21.
  16. Aleksovski A, Dreu R, Gašperlin M, Planinšek O. Mini-tablets: a contem­porary system for oral drug delivery in targeted patient groups. Expert Opin Drug Deliv.2015;12(1):65-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17425247.2014.951633; PMid:25200881.
  17. Reineke J, Cho DY, Dingle YL, Cheifetz P, Laulicht B, Lavin D, et al. Can bio adhesive nanoparticles allow for more effective particle uptake from the small intestine?. J Control Release. 2013;170(3):477-84.
  18. Collins AE1, Deasy PB. Bio adhesive lozenge for the improved delivery of ce­tylpyridinium chloride. J Pharm Sci. 1990;79(2):116-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ jps.2600790208.
  19. Morales JO, Mc Conville JT. Novel strategies for the Buccal delivery of macro­molecules. Drug DevInd Pharm. 2014; 40 (5) : 579-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0 3639045.2014.892960; PMid:24611816.
  20. Laffleur F. Mucoadhesive polymers for Buccal drug delivery. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2014;40(5):591-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2014.892959; PMid:24576266.
  21. Laffleur F, Bernkop-Schnürch A. Strategies for improving mucosal drug delivery. Nanomedicine (Lond).2013;8(12):2061-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm.13.178; PMid:24279493.
  22. Kumar K, Dhawan N, Sharma H, Vaidya S, Vaidya B. Bio adhesive polymers: novel tool for drug delivery. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2014;42(4):274-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2013.815194; PMid:23859698.
  23. Leucuta SE. Drug delivery systems with modified release for systemic and bio phase bioavailability. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2012;7(4):282-317. http://dx.doi. org/10.2174/157488412803305786; PMid:22794159.
  24. Bagan J, Paderni C, Termine N, Campisi G, Lo Russo L, Compilato D, et al. Mu­coadhesive polymers for oral transmucosal drug delivery: a review. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(34):5497-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161212803307545; PMid:22632395.
  25. Satyabrata B, Ellaiah P, Choudhury R, Murthy KVR, Bibhutibhusan P and Kumar MS, Design and evaluation of Methotrexate buccal mucoadhesive patches, Inter. J. Pharm. Biomed.Sci., 2010, 1(2), 31-
  26. Patil BS, Tate SS, Kulkarni U, Hariprasanna RC and Wadageri GV. Development and In-vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Tizanidine hydrochloride using natural polymer Xanthan gum, Inter. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. and Res., 2011, 8(2), 140-146.
  27. Satheesh MNV, Semwal R, Semwal DK, Semwal RB. Recent trends in oral transmucosal drug delivery systems: an emphasis on the soft palatal route. Expert Op in Drug Deliv. 2012;9(6):629-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17425247.20 12.679260; PMid:22512535.
  28. Khutoryanskiy VV. Advances in mucoadhesion and mucoadhesive MacromolBiosci. 2011;14-11(6):748-64.
  29. Guha SS, Banerjee R. Intravesical drug delivery: Challenges, current status, op­portunities and novel strategies. J Control Release. 2010;148(2):147-59.